Journal of Medical Bacteriology 2017. 6(1-2):15-20.

Detection of Fimbrial Genes, Antibiotic Resistance Profile and Phylogenetic Background of Uropathogenic E. coli Isolated from Clinical Samples in Karaj City, Iran
Maryam Ebadi, Nasrin Askari, Maziar Jajarmi, Reza Ghanbarpour


Background:   The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of phylogenetic groups/subgroups, fimbrial genes, and antibiotic susceptibility of E. coli isolated from urinary tract infections in Karaj city, Iran.

Methods:  A total of 107 E. coli isolates were confirmed by standard bacteriological tests. The phylogenetic group, fimbrial genes and antibiotic resistance genes was determined by PCR method. Antibiotic resistance of all the isolated E.coli against nine antimicrobial agents was determined by disk diffusion method.

Results:   PCR assays showed the prevalence of fimbrial genes among the studied isolates were 31.7% and 9.3% for papEF and afaBC, respectively. Most of papEF genes were placed in D phylogroup (18.6%) and D1 subgroup (14.01%) and the percentage of afaBC (2.8%) were similar in B1, B2 and D phylogroups. The frequency of tetA and tetB genes were 22.4% and 17.7%. Isolates which contained tetA were distributed mainly in D group (14.01%) and those which contained tetB were divided in D group (7.48%). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed the maximum resistance rate to cephalexin (CN: 100%) and the minimum resistance level to ciprofloxacin (CP: 36.5%).

Conclusion:   The present study showed that phylogenetic groups A and D were predominant. Virulence factors such as papEF and afaBC belonged to D phylogenetic group. Multidrug resistance E. coli isolates tends to be in the non-B2 phylogenetic groups. Due to high antibiotic resistance, appropriate control should be considered in medicine to control the development of novel resistant isolates.


Escherichia coli, Urinary tract infection, Virulence genes, Antibiotic resistance.

Full Text:



Mao BH, Chang YF, Scaria J, N, et al. Identification of Escherichia coli genes associated with urinary tract infections. J Clin Microbiol 2012; 50(2): 449–56.

Johnson JR, Kaster N, Kuskowski MA, et al. Identification of urovirulence traits in Escherichia coli by comparison of urinary and rectal E. coli isolates from dogs with urinary tract infection. J Clin Microbiol 2003; 41: 337–45.

Johnson JR, Russo TA. Molecular epidemiology of extraintestinal Pathogenic (uropathogenic) Escherichia coli. Int J Med Microbiol 2005; 295: 383–404.

Oliveira FA, Paludo KS, Arend L, et al. Virulence characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibility of uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains. Genet Mol Res 2011; 10: 4114–25.

Bouguenec CL, Laliouil L, Merle LD, et al. Characterization of AfaE adhesins produced by extraintestinal and intestinal human Escherichia coli isolates: PCR assays for detection of Afa adhesions that do or do not recognize Dr blood group antigens. J Clin Microbiol 2001; 1738–45.

Ghanbarpour R, Salehi M, Oswald E. Virulence genotyping of Escherichia coli isolates from avian cellulitis in relation to phylogeny. Comp Clin Pathol 2010; 19: 147–53.

Carlos C, Pires MM, Stoppe NC, et al. Escherichia coli phylogenetic group determination and its application in the identification of the major animal source of fecal contamination. BMC Microbiol 2010; 10.

Choi UY, Han SB, Lee SY, et al. Regional differences in phylogenetic group of Escherichia coli strains isolated from children with urinary tract infection in Korea. Korean J Pediatr 2012; 55: 420–3.

Clermont O, Bonacorsi S, Bingen E. Rapid and simple determination of the Escherichia coli phylogenetic group. Appl Environ Microb 2000; 66: 4555–8.

Mokracka J, Koczura R, Jabłonska L, et al. Phylogenetic groups, virulence genes, and quinolone resistance of integron-bearing Escherichia coli strains isolated from a wastewater Treatment plant. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 2011; 99: 817–24.

Abdallah KS, Cao Y, Wei DJ. Epidemiologic investigation of extraintestinal pathogenic E.coli (ExPEC) based on PCR phylogenetic group and fimH single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in China. Int J Mol Epidemiol Genet 2011; 2: 339–53.

Rather TA, Hussain SA, Bhat SA, et al. Antibiotic sensitivity of E. coli and Salmonella isolated from different water sources in Kashmir, India. Comp Clin Pathol 2013; 22: 729-31.

Arancibia EM, Pitart C, Ruiz J, Marco, et al. Evolution of antimicrobial resistance in enteroaggregative Escherichia coli and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli causing traveler’s diarrhea. J Antimicrob Chemother 2009; 64: 343–7.

Johnson JR, Johnston B, Kuskowski MA, et al. Spontaneous conversion to quinolone and fluoroquinolone resistance among wild-type Escherichia coli isolates in relation to phylogenetic background and virulence genotype. Antimicrob Agents Chem 2005; 49: 4739–44.

Cheng CH, Tsai MH, Huang YC, et al. Antibiotic resistance patterns of community acquired urinary tract infections in children with vesicoureteral reflux receiving prophylactic antibiotic therapy. Pediatrics 2008; 122: 1212–7.

Hemati Z, Ghanbarpour R, Alizade H. The Distribution of Beta Lactamase Genes in Escherichia Coli Phylotypes Isolated from Diarrhea and UTI Cases in Northwest Iran. Adv Clin Exp Med 2014; 23:523–9.

Caitlin N, Spaulding, Scott J. Hultgren. Adhesive Pili in UTI Pathogenesis and Drug Development. Pathogens 2016; 5: 30.

Alizade H, Ghanbarpour R, Aflatoonian M, et al. Determination of phylogenetic background, fimbrial genes, and antibiotic susceptibility of Escherichia coli isolates from urinary tract infections in Bam region, Iran. Comp Clin Pathol 2013; 1–5.

Tiba MR, Yano T, Leite DS. Genotypic characterization of virulence factors in Escherichia coli strains from patients with cystitis. Rev Inst Med trop S Paulo 2008; 50: 255–60.

Spaulding CN, Hultgren SJ. Adhesive pili in UTI pathogenesis and drug development. Pathogens 2016; 5(1): 30.

Akhtardanesh B, Ghanbarpour R, Yazdani E. Determination of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases genes and antibiotic resistance patterns in Escherichia coli isolates from healthy cats. J Med Bacteriol 2015; 4(5, 6): 1–6.

Kalaskar A, Kandi V. Determination of Antimicrobial Resistance Pattern and Production of Extended-Spectrum Β-Lactamases amongst Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae from Clinical Isolates. J Med Bacteriol 2012; 1(3, 4): 17–24.

Yamamoto S, Terai A, Yuri K, et al. Detection of urovirulence factors in Escherichia coli by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 1995; 12: 85–90.

Randall LP, Cooles SW, Osborn MK, et al. Antibiotic resistance genes, integrons and multiple antibiotic resistance in thirty-five serotypes of Salmonella enterica isolated from humans and animals in the UK. J Antimicrob Chemother 2004; 53: 208–216.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.