Journal of Medical Bacteriology 2014. 3(3-4):26-31.

Biofilm Formation by Bacteria Isolated from Intravenous Catheters
Sina Hedayati, Fereshteh Eftekhar, SeyedMasoud Hosseini

Abstract


Background: Reports on the association of nosocomial bacterial infections with indwelling medical devices such as intravenous catheters (IVC) has increased in recent years. The potential to form biofilm on these devices seems to be the main reason for establishment of such infections. The aim of this study was to measure the potential of biofilm formation by bacterial
isolates from IVCs.
Methods: Seventy-one IVCs were collected from hospitalized patients in ICU, NICU, hematology and oncology wards at Taleghani Hospital from Jan 2010 to Jan 2011. The bacterial isolates were identified using the standard biochemical tests and the potential to form biofilms was determined by the microtiter plate assay method (MTP) and colony morphology using Congo red agar plates (CRA).
Results: Overall, 54 (71%) IVCs were colonized and 76 bacteria were isolated among which, 64 (84.2%) were coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS), 3 (3.9%) S. aureus, 3 (3.9%) Enterococcus spp., 2 (2.6%) E. coli and 4 (5.3%) were miscellaneous isolates not further identified. Among the CoNS, biofilm formation was observed in 68.7% and 82.8% of bacteria
using MTP and CRA methods, respectively. S. aureus and E. coli isolates also were biofilm producers but Enterococcus and other unknown isolates were biofilm negative.
Conclusions: Our results confirm that the prevalent biofilm forming bacteria on IVCs were CoNS and that was the reason for high rates of nosocomial infections.

Keywords


Intravenous, catheter, coagulase, negative, staphylococci, Biofilm

Full Text:

PDF

References


Costerton JW, Cheng KJ, Geesey GG, et al. Bacterial biofilms in nature and disease. An Rev Microbiol 1987; 41 (1):435-64.

Reid G. Biofilms in infectious disease and on medical devices. Int J Antimicrob Agent; 1999: 11 (3-4): 223-6.

Aparna MS, Yadav S. Biofilms: microbes and disease. Braz J Infect Dis 2008; 12 (6): 526-30.

Costerton J, Stewart PS, Greenberg E.Bacterial biofilms: a common cause of persistent infections. Science 1999; 284 (5418): 1318-22.

Donlan RM. Biofilms and device- associated infections. Emerg Infect Dis 2001; 7 (2): 277-81.

Paragioudaki M, Stamouli V, Kolonistiou F, et al. Intravenous catheter infections associated with bacteraemia: a 2 year study in a university hospital. Clin Microbiol Infect 2004; 10 (5): 431-5.

Donlan RM. Biofilm formation: a clinically relevant microbiological process. Clin Infect Dis 2001; 33 (8): 387-92.

Eftekhar F, Speert DP. Biofilm formation by persistent and non-persistent isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis from a neonatal intensive care unit. J Hosp Infect 2009. 71 (2): 112-6.

Maki DG, Weise CE, Sarafin HW. A semiquantitative culture method for identifying intravenous catheter-related infection. New Eng J Med 1977; 296 (23): 1305-9.

Eftekhar, F, Mirmohamadi Z. Evaluation of biofilm production by Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates from nosocomial infections and skin of healthy volunteers. Int J Med Med Sci 2009; 1(10): 438-41.

Jain A, Agarwal A. Biofilm production, a marker of pathogenic potential of colonizing and commensal staphylococci. J Microbiol Meth 2009; 76 (1): 88-92.

Mercuri LG. Microbial biofilms: a potential source for alloplastic device failure. J Oral MaxilloFacial Surg 2006;64 (8): 1303-9.

Cadorna EA, Watanakunakorn C.Septicemic shock from urinary tract infection caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis. South Med J 1995; 88 (8):879-80.

Kennedy HF, Morrison D, Kaufmann ME, et al. Origins of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Streptococcus oralis causing bacteraemia in a bone marrow transplant patient. J Med Microbiol 2000;49 (4): 367-70.

Maki DG, Ringer M. Risk factors for infusion-related phlebitis with small peripheral venous catheters. An Intern Med 1991; 114 (10): 845-54.

Rupp ME, Archer GL. Coagulase-negative staphylococci: pathogens associated with medical progress. Clin Infect Dis Soc Am 1994; 19 (2): 231-43.17. Curran E, Coia JE, Gilmour H, et al.Multi-centre research surveillance project to reduce infections/phlebitis associated with peripheral vascular catheters. J Hosp Infect 2000; 46 (3): 194-202.

Ziebuhr W, Heilmann C, Gotz F, et al.Detection of the intercellular adhesion gene cluster (ica) and phase variation in Staphylococcus epidermidis blood culture strains and mucosal isolates. Infect Imm 1997; 65 (3) 890-6.

Arciola C, Baldassarri L, Montanaro L.Presence of icaA and icaD genes and slime production in a collection of staphylococcal strains from catheter- associated infections. J Clin Microbiol 2001; 39 (6): 2151-6.

Kotilainen P. Association of coagulase- negative staphylococcal slime production and adherence with the development and outcome of adult septicemias. J Clin Microbiol 1990; 28 (12): 2779-85.

Arciola CR, Campoccio D, Baldassari L, et al. Detection of biofilm formation in Staphylococcus epidermidis from implant infections. Comparison of a PCR‐method that recognizes the presence of ica genes with two classic phenotypic methods. J Biomed Mat Res Part A 2006; 76(2):425-30.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.