Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from Plants against Selected Microorganisms
AbstractBackground: it is known that plants have many potential benefits for human health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial properties of several commonly used herbs against specific microorganisms responsible for disease and food spoilage. Essential oils of yarrow, fennel, juniper and marjoram were evaluated, with respect to their efficacy at controlling the growth and survival of several common bacterial and fungal microorganisms. Methods: The agar diffusion test was used to test the essential oils efficacy at inhibiting microbial growth. The following microorganisms were tested with varied results: Escherichia coli, Aspergillus niger, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella anatum, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, Penicillium glaucum and Bacillus cereus. Results: Marjoram showed the highest inhibition with a zone up to 14 mm. Juniper and fennel essential oils were also highly inhibitory to Candida albicans and the other tested bacteria and fungi. Conclusion: In conclusion, some of the oils were highly effective at inhibiting the studied microorganisms. This knowledge may be useful for further examining the efficacy of pathogenic prevention and food preservation by studied essential oils.
Raskin I, Ribnicky DM, Komarnytsky S, et al. Plants and human health in the twenty-first century. Trends Biotechnol 2002; 20(12):522-31.
Pellegrini A, "Sanitization process by using bacteriostatic or bactericidal products derived from vegetables," ed: Google Patents, 2006.
Jorgensen JH and Turnidge JD, "Susceptibility test methods: dilution and disk diffusion methods," in Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition: American Society of Microbiology, 2015: 1253-73.
Gutierrez J, Barry-Ryan C, and Bourke P. The antimicrobial efficacy of plant essential oil combinations and interactions with food ingredients. Int J Food Microbiol 2008; 124(1):91-7.
Tepe B, Daferera D, Sökmen M et al. In vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oils and various extracts of Thymus eigii M. Zohary et PH Davis. J Agric Food Chem 2004; 52(5):1132-7.
Miguel MG. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of essential oils: a short review. Molecules 2010; 15(12):9252-87.
Richter J, Schellenberg I. Comparison of different extraction methods for the determination of essential oils and related compounds from aromatic plants and optimization of solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography. Anal. Bioanal. Chem 2007; 387(6):2207-17.
Ruberto G, Baratta MT. Antioxidant activity of selected essential oil components in two lipid model systems. Food chem 2000; 69(2):167-74.
Edris AE. Pharmaceutical and therapeutic potentials of essential oils and their individual volatile constituents: a review. Phytother Res 2007; 21(4):308-23.
Georgescu C and Mironescu M. Obtaining, characterisation and screening of the antifungal activity of the volatile oil extracted from Thymus serpyllum. J Environ Prot Ecol 2011; 12(4A):2294-302.
Rose J, 2013. The aromatherapy book: applications and inhalations. North Atlantic Books.
Ezzeddine NBH-B, Abdelkefi M, Aissa RB et al. Antibacterial screening of Origanum majorana L. oil from Tunisia. Journal of Essential Oil Research 2001; 13(4):295-7.
Sreeramu B, 2004. Cultivation of medicinal and aromatic crops. Universities Press.
Conner D, Beuchat L. Effects of essential oils from plants on growth of food spoilage yeasts. Journal of food science 1984; 49(2): 429-34.
Stewart J. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enteriditis by combinations of plant oils and derivatives of benzoic acid: the development of synergistic antimicrobial combinations. Int J Antimicrob Agents 1998; 3(9):195-9.
Dadalioǧlu I, Evrendilek GA. Chemical compositions and antibacterial effects of essential oils of Turkish oregano (Origanum minutiflorum), bay laurel (Laurus nobilis), Spanish lavender (Lavandula stoechas L.), and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) on common foodborne pathogens. J Agric Food Chem 2004; 52(26):8255-60.
Figueiredo AC, Barroso JG, Pedro LG et al. Factors affecting secondary metabolite production in plants: volatile components and essential oils. Flavour Fragr J 2008; 23(4):213-26.
Al-Samarrai G, Singh H, and Syarhabil M. Evaluating eco-friendly botanicals (natural plant extracts) as alternatives to synthetic fungicides. Ann Agric Environ Med 2012; 19(4):673-6.