Antimicrobial Effect of Nano-Zinc Oxide and Nano-Chitosan Particles in Dental Composite Used in Orthodontics
AbstractBackground: Incidence of white spots due to demineralization of enamel and gingival problems is an unacceptable result of orthodontic treatment. Plaque accumulation and bacterial biofilm growth are responsible for these phenomena. The resin-based dental composites used as bonding agents in orthodontics play a major role in mentioned problems. As recent researches assert the antimicrobial effects of chitosan (CS) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs), it seems that adding these nanoparticles to the composite can be beneficial in reducing the number and function of microorganisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of ZnO-NP and CS-NP-containing orthodontic composite.Methods: Antibacterial effectiveness of ZnO-NPs and CS-NPs was assessed in four groups against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis and Lactobacillus acidophilus grown both planktonic and as a biofilm on composites. One group as the unmodified control group and three groups consisting of three different concentrations of ZnO-NPs and CS-NPs mixture: 1%, 5% and 10% (1:1 w/w). 108 CFU/ml microorganism suspensions were provided with spectrophotometer. Biofilm formation was quantified by viable counts. Disc agar diffusion (DAD) test was carried out to determine antimicrobial effects of nanoparticles by measuring the inhibition diameter on brain heart infusion agar plates. Finally,viable counts of microorganisms on days 3, 15 and 30 were collected for the antimicrobial effects of eluted components from composite discs.Results: In biofilm formation test, a reduction in bacterial counts was observed with 10% nanoparticle-containing composites compared with their unmodified counterpart. In the DAD test only 10% nanoparticle-containing specimens showed statistically significant inhibition. The only noticeable datain eluted component test was on day 30 for 10% nanoparticle- containing discs, inhibiting L. acidophilus.Conclusion: It seems that a mixture of ZnO-NPs and CS-NPs has induced an antibacterial activity in resin composite; especially in 10% weight concentrations which was significantly higher than other groups.
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