Short Communications

Vacuolating Cytotoxin A (VacA) Gene in Peptic Ulcer Disease and Nonulcer Dyspepsia


Background:   Vaculating cytotoxic A (vacA) gene is one of the multiple Helicobacter pylori genotypes that produce a cytotoxin protein (VacA).This gene is a major cause of chronic peptic ulcers and gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between vacA gene with peptic ulcer disease (PUD) and non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD).Methods:   This was a case control study of 130 patients, aged 16-64, with positive H. pylori in histological and Giemsa reports. The case and control groups included 65 PUD patients and 65 NUD patients, respectively. The presence of the vacA gene genotypes was determined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on biopsy samples, taken by endoscopy.Results:   In the case group, gastric ulcer was detected in 41.5% (27) of the participants; of whom, 77.8% (21) were female; and duodenal ulcer was found in 58.5% (38) of the participants, of whom,42.1 % (16)were female. The control group (NUD) included 65 patients; of them,45% (29) were female and the average age was 36.4 ±10.8 years (18 to 60).The total frequency of the vacA gene was 53% (69/130),with 60% in the PUD and 46% in the NUD groups (Odds ratio:1.75,95% CI:1.42-2.12,P=0.25).Conclusion:   The vacA gene alone could not be a reliable diagnostic marker for discriminating peptic ulcer disease from non-ulcer dyspepsia in the Iranian population under study.

Sugimoto M, Zali MR, Yamaoka Y. The association of vacA genotypes and Helicobacter pylori-related gastrodoudenal diseases in the Middle East. Eur J Clin Microb Infect Dis 2009; 28: 1227-36.

Yokoyama K, Higashi H, Ishikawa S, et al.Functional antagonism between Helicobacter pylori CagA and vacuolating toxin VacA in control of the NFAT signaling pathway in gastric epithelial cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2005; 102: 9661–66.

Robinson K, Kenefeck R, Pidgeon EL, et al. Helicobacter pylori-induced peptic ulcer disease is associated with inadequate regulatory Tcell responses. Gut 2008; 57(10): 1375–85.

Tegtmeyer N, Zabler D, Schmidt D, et al. Importance of EGF receptor, HER2/Neu and Erk1/2 kinase signaling for host cell elongation and scattering induced by the Helicobacter pylori CagA protein: antagonistic effects of the vaculating cytotoxin VacA. Cell Microbiol 2008; 11: 488–505.

Panayotopoulou EG, Sgouras DN, Papadakos KS, et al. CagA and VacA Polymorphisms Are Associated with Distinct Pathological Features in Helicobacter pylori-Infected Adults with Peptic Ulcer and Non-Peptic Ulcer Disease. J Clin Microbiol 2010; 48(6): 2237–39.

Boquet P, Ricci V. Intoxication strategy of Helicobacter pylori VacA toxin. Tren Microbiol 2012; 20: 165–74.

Oertli M, Noben M, Engler DB, et al. Helicobacter pylori gamma glutamyl transpeptidase and vaculating cytotoxin promote gastric persistence and immune tolerance. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2013; 110: 3047–52.

Zhou W, Yamazaki S, Yamakawa A, et al. The diversity of vacA and cagA genes of Helicobacter pylori in East Asia. FEMS Imm Med Microbiol 2004; 40: 81-7.

Jafari F, Shokerzadeh L, Dabiri H, Baghaei K, et al. vacA genotype of Helicobacter Pylori in relation to cagA status and clinical outcomes in Iranian population. Jpn Infect Dis 2008; 61 (4): 290-3.

Moayyedi P, Duffett S, Braunhottz D, et al. The Leed´s Dyspepsia Questioner (LDQ); a valid tool for measuring the presence and severity of dyspepsia. Alimen Pharmacol Ther 1998; 12: 1257-62.

Mukhopadhyay AK, Kersulyte D, Yong Jeong J, et al. Distinctiveness of Genotypes of Helicobacter pylori in Calcutta. India.J Bacteriol 2000; 182(11): 3219-27.

Wilson KT and Cratree JE. Immunology of Helicobacter pylori: Insight into the failure of the immune response and prespective on vaccine studies. Gastroentrol 2007; 133: 288-308.

Yaseri HF, Shakaraby M, Bradaran HR, et al. CagA and VacA genotypes in peptic ulcer disease and non-ulcer dyspepsia: a case-control study. Med J Islam Repub Iran 2014; 28(1): 671-676.

IssueVol 5 No 1-2 (2016) QRcode
SectionShort Communications
Peptic ulcer disease Non-ulcer dyspepsia Vaculating cytotoxin A (VacA) gene Vaculating cytotoxic protein (VacA)

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
Fakhre Yaseri H, Shekaraby M, Bradaran HR, Soltani Arabshhi SK. Vacuolating Cytotoxin A (VacA) Gene in Peptic Ulcer Disease and Nonulcer Dyspepsia. J Med Bacteriol. 5(1-2):47-51.