Original Articles

Antimicrobial and Anti-Swarming Effects of Bacteriocins and Biosurfactants from Probiotic Bacterial Strains against Proteus spp.


Background:   Proteus spp. belongs to the family of Enterobacteriaceae. These bacteria are Gram-negative and motile microorganisms and known as the third most common causes of urinary tract infections. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of some secondary metabolites from probiotic strains of Lactobacillus spp. on swarming and growth of Proteus mirabilis and P. vulgaris. Methods:   After determination of optimal conditions for the growth and production of antimicrobials, bacteriocins and biosurfactants were partially purified from Lactobacillus culture supernatants. Then, effects of the purified compounds on growth and swarming migration of Proteus spp. were examined in the presence of various concentrations of semi-purified compounds. Results:  Results showed that the partially purified bacteriocins inhibited Proteus spp. swarming distance and had a significant reduction on the bacterial growth curves. Biosurfactants in a solvent form did not have any considerable effects on factors produced by Proteus spp. Conclusion:  According to the results, the secondary metabolites, especially bacteriocins or bacteriocin-like substances derived from Lactobacillus strains, can inhibit or reduce growth and swarming migration of Proteus spp. which are considered as the bacteria major virulence factors.

Morgenstein RM and Rather PN. Role of the Umo proteins and the Rcs phosphorelay in the swarming motility of the wild type and an O-Antigen (waaL) mutant of Proteus mirabilis. J Bacteriol 2012; 194(3): 669-76.

Sivick KE and Mobley HL. Waging war against uropathogenic Escherichia coli: winning back the urinary tract. Infect immun 2010; 78: 568-85.

Liaw SJ, Lai HC, Wang WB. Modulation of swarming and virulence by fatty acids through the RsbA protein in Proteus mirabilis. Infect immun 2004; 72: 6836-45.

Manos J, Belas R. The genera Proteus, Providencia, and Morganella. Prokaryotes 2006; 6: 245-69.

Armbruster CE, Hodges SA, Mobley HLT. Initiation of swarming motility by Proteus mirabilis occurs in response to specific cues present in urine and requires excess L-Glutamine. J Bacteriol 2013; 195(6): 1305-19.

Stickler DJ. Susceptibility of antibiotic-resistant gram-negative bacteria to biocides: a perspective from the study of catheter biofilms. Symp Ser Soc Appl Microbiol 2002; 31: 163S-70S.

Callaway TR, Edrington TS, Anderson RC, et al. Probiotics, prebiotics and competitive exclusion for prophylaxis against bacterial disease. Anim Health Res Rev 2008; 9(2): 217-25.

Allegretti L, Revolledo L, Astolfi-Ferreira CS, et al. Isolation and molecular identification of lactic acid bacteria and Bifidobacterium spp. from feces of the blue-fronted Amazon parrot in Brazil. Benef Microbes 2014; 5(4): 497-503.

Uraipan S, Hongpattarakere T. Antagonistic characteristics against food-borne pathogenic bacteria of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Bifidobacteria isolated from feces of healthy Thai infants. Jundishapur J Microbiol 2015; 8(6): e18264.

Delley M, Bruttin A, Richard M, et al. In vitro activity of commercial probiotic Lactobacillus strains against uropathogenic Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiol Lett 2015; 362(13): fnv096.

Riaz S, Nawaz SK, Hasnain S. Bacteriocins produced by L. fermentum and L. acidophilus can inhibit cephalosporin resistant E. coli. Braz J Biol 2010; 41: 643-8.

Van Hamme JD, Singh A, Ward OP. Physiological aspects: Part 1 in a series of papers devoted to surfactants in microbiology and biotechnology. Biotechnol Advances 2006; 24: 604-20.

Mayrhofer S, Domig KJ, Mair C, et al. Comparison of broth microdilution, E-test, and agar disk diffusion methods for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Lactobacillus acidophilus group members. Appl Environ Microbiol 2008; 74: 3745-8.

Han KS, Imm JY, Oh S, et al. Bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356: characterization and purification. Food Sci Biotechnol 2002; 1: 531-6.

Lash BW, Mysliwiec TH, Gourama, H. Detection and partial characterization of a broad-range bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus plantarum (ATCC 8014). Food Microbiology 2005; 22: 199-204.

Nowroozi J, Mirzaii M, Norouzi M. Study of Lactobacillus as probiotic bacteria. Iranian J Pub Health 2004; 33(2): 1-7.

Zendo T. Screening and characterization of novel bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2013; 77(5): 893-9.

Gudina EJ, Teixeira JA, Rodrigues LR. Biosurfactant-producing Lactobacilli: screening, production profiles, and effect of medium composition. Appl Environ Soil Sci 2011. 2011(201254): 1-9.

Saravanakumari P, Mani K. Structural characterization of a novel xylolipid biosurfactant from Lactococcus lactis and analysis of antibacterial activity against multi-drug resistant pathogens. Bioresour Technol 2010; 101: 8851-4.

Paluszak Z, Bauza-Kaszewska J, Szala B. Inhibitory effect of lactic acid bacteria of genus Lactobacillus on the survival of Proteus and Shigella rods in mixed cultures. Bull Vet Inst Pulawy 2006; 50: 335-40.

Mansouri S, Amari A, Asad AG. Inhibitory effect of some medicinal plants from Iran on swarming motility of Proteus rods. J Med Sci 2005; 5: 216-21.

Lebenthal E, Lebenthal Y. Probiotics: an important therapeutic concept awaiting validation. World J Gastroenterol 2002; 4: 374-5.

Khder AK. Effect of Allium sativum and Myrtus communis on the elimination of antibiotic resistance and swarming of Proteus mirabilis. J Biol Sci 2008; 1: 124-8.

Mohankumar A, Murugalatha N. Characterization and antibacterial activity of bacteriocin producing Lactobacillus isolated from raw cattle milk sample. Inter J Biolog 2011; 3(3): 128-43.

Nashikkar N, Begde D, Bundale S, et al. Inhibition of swarming motility, biofilm formation and virulence factor expression of urinary pathogens by Euphorbia trigona latex extracts. IJPSR 2011; 2: 556-8.

Iwalokun B, Akinsinde K, Nkiruika N. Inhibition of swarming by urea and its diagnostic implications among uropathogenic Proteus species from Lagos, Nigeria. African J Clin Exper Microbiol 2003; 4: 18-28.

Wang WB, Lai HC, Hsueh PR, et al. Inhibition of swarming and virulence factor expression in Proteus mirabilis by resveratrol. J med microbiol 2006; 55(10): 1313-21.

Echeverrigaray S, Michelim L, Longaray Delamare AP, et al. The effect of monoterpenes on swarming differentiation and haemolysin activity in Proteus mirabilis. Molecules 2008; 13: 3107-16.

Ward OP. Microbial biosurfactants and biodegradation. Adv Exp Med Biol 2010; 672: 65-74.

Stankowska D, Czerwonka G, Rozalska S, et al. Influence of quorum sensing signal molecules on biofilm formation in Proteus mirabilis O18. Folia Microbiol (Praha) 2012; 57(1): 53-60.

Karthikeyan V, Santhoshm SW. Study of bacteriocin as a food preservative and the L. acidophilus strain as probiotic. Pakistan J Nut 2009; 8(4): 335-40.

IssueVol 5 No 5-6 (2016) QRcode
SectionOriginal Articles
Bacteriocin Biosurfactant Proteus Swarming

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
Goudarzi L, Kasra Kermanshahi R, Mousavinezhad Z, Soltan Dallal MM. Antimicrobial and Anti-Swarming Effects of Bacteriocins and Biosurfactants from Probiotic Bacterial Strains against Proteus spp. J Med Bacteriol. 5(5-6):1-12.