Detection of tstH Gene in Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Hospitalized Burnt Children
AbstractBackground: The main cause of toxic shock is TSST-1 toxin which is produced by S. aureus. Finding of TSST-1 toxin in burnt children is very important to prevent TSS and its consequences. Methods: The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of gene encoding TSST-1 toxin in wound specimens by PCR. In this case-control study, 90 children who were admitted to the burn unit, were divided in two groups of 45 patients, namely febrile (cases group) and non-febrile (control group). Samplings were done from the burn wounds and were tested by PCR with specific primers of tstH gene. Finally, all data including demographic characteristics, percentage of burnt surface severity and the PCR results were analyzed, statistically.Results: The positive PCR results indicated the expression of tstH gene in 37.7% of the febrile children and 11.1% of the non-febrile children with a statistically significant difference (p <0.003). The means and the standard deviations for the percentage of burnt surfaces (i.e. severity) in the samples with the positive and negative PCR results were 30.9±16.93 and 20.09±11.02, respectively with a statistically significant difference (p <0.01). No difference with respect to age and sex could be detected between positive and negative PCR results.Conclusion: A direct association between the expression of tstH and the occurrence of fever in the burnt children was observed. Furthermore, increased surface area of the wounds was also positively related to the expression of tstH.
Zarifian A, Setayesh Y, Askari E, et al. Inducible clindamycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Iran: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Med Bacteriol 2015; 4(1, 2): 43-52.
Shamansouri S, Karbasizade V. Frequency of MecA gene in the clinical isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis in Isfahan, Iran. J Med Bacteriol 2016; 5(3, 4): 45-9.
Yamaoka M, Kusunoki Y, Kasagi F, Hayashi T, Nakachi K, Kyoizumi S. Decreases in percentages of naive CD4 and CD8 T cells and increases in percentages of memory CD8 T-cell subsets in the peripheral blood lymphocyte populations of A-bomb survivors. Radiation research 2004; 161(3): 290-298.
Todd J, Fishaut M, Kapral F, et al. Toxic-shock syndrome associated with phage-group-I staphylococci. The Lancet 1978; 312(8100): 1116-8.
Dinges MM, Orwin PM, Schlievert PM. Exotoxins of Staphylococcus aureus. Clin Microbiol Rev 2000; 13(1): 16-34.
Yarwood JM, McCormick JK, Schlievert PM. Identification of a novel two-component regulatory system that acts in global regulation of virulence factors of Staphylococcus aureus. J bacteriol 2001; 183(4): 1113-23.
Nakagawa S, Kushiya K, Taneike I, et al. Specific inhibitory action of anisodamine against a staphylococcal superantigenic toxin, toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1), leading to down-regulation of cytokine production and blocking of TSST-1 toxicity in mice. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2005; 12(3): 399-408.
El-Ghodban A, Ghenghesh KS, Márialigeti K, et al. PCR detection of toxic shock syndrome toxin of Staphylococcus aureus from Tripoli, Libya. J Med Microbiol 2006; 55(2): 179-82.
Laabei M, Young A, Jenkins ATA. In Vitro Studies of Toxic Shock Toxin-1–secreting Staphylococcus aureus and Implications for Burn Care in Children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2012; 31(5): e73-e7.
Shamansouri S, Karbasizade V. Frequency of MecA gene in the clinical isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis in Isfahan, Iran. J Med Bacteriol 2016; 5(3, 4): 45-49.
Nagao M, Okamoto A, Yamada K, et al. Variations in amount of TSST-1 produced by clinical methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates and allelic variation in accessory gene regulator (agr) locus. BMC microbiol 2009; 9(1): 52.
White MC, Thornton K, Young AE. Early diagnosis and treatment of toxic shock syndrome in paediatric burns. Burns 2005; 31(2): 193-7.
Becker K, Roth R, Peters G. Rapid and specific detection of toxigenic Staphylococcus aureus: use of two multiplex PCR enzyme immunoassays for amplification and hybridization of staphylococcal enterotoxin genes, exfoliative toxin genes, and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 gene. J Med Microbiol 1998; 36(9): 2548-53.
Norouzi J, Goudarzi G, Pakzad P, Razavipour R. The isolation and detection of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins AE and TSST-1 genes from different sources by PCR method. Qom University of Medical Sciences Journal 2012; 6(3): 78-85.
Peck KR, Baek JY, Song J-H, Ko KS. Comparison of genotypes and enterotoxin genes between Staphylococcus aureus isolates from blood and nasal colonizers in a Korean hospital. J Korean Med Sci. 2009; 24(4): 585-91.
Sila J, Sauer P, Kolar M. Comparison of the prevalence of genes coding for enterotoxins, exfoliatins, panton-valentine leukocidin and tsst-1 between methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible isolates of Staphylococcus aureus at the university hospital in olomouc. Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub 2009; 153(3): 215-8.
Skov R, Smyth R, Clausen M, Larsen A, et al. Evaluation of a cefoxitin 30 µg disc on Iso-Sensitest agar for detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 2003; 52(2): 204-7.
Quan L, Morita R, Kawakami S. Toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) antibody levels in Japanese children. Burns. 2010; 36(5): 716-21.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.