Biofilm Removal and Antimicrobial Activities of Agar Hydrogel Containing Colloid Nano-Silver against Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhimurium
AbstractBackground: Antibacterial and biofilm removal effects of agar hydrogel incorporating silver nanoparticles (SNP) at various concentrations were studied against Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhimurium in vitro.Methods: The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of SNP was determined by agar dilution method. Then, hydrogels were prepared by mixing of 0.5% w/v agar and SNP (1/2 MIC, MIC, and 2 MIC) and their inhibitory efficacies against planktonic and biofilm forms of bacteria were measured using agar spot and microtiter test, respectively.Results: The MIC value was 125 µg/ mL for both bacteria. All SNP hydrogels represented antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and S. typhimurium on agar culture, which was significant compared to control group (silver sulfadiazine cream). The developed biofilm of S. aureus and S. typhimurium were strongly (85% reduction) and modernly affected (60% reduction) by SNP hydrogels during 15 min contact time, respectively. A dose-dependent biofilm reduction was not demonstrated when different SNP concentrations were tested. Moreover, the results from this study confirmed the moderate sanitizing ability of SNP loaded hydrogel against planktonic forms of both bacteria, which SNP (2MIC) hydrogel decreased only 2.3 log10 CFU/ mL in a primary population of S. typhimurium during 15 min exposure time.Conclusion: We recommended SNP incorporated agar hydrogel as an effective biofilm removal sanitizer.
Bhattarai N, Gunn J, Zhang M. Chitosan-based hydrogels for controlled, localized drug delivery. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2010; 62(1): 83-99.
Caló E, Khutoryanskiy VV. Biomedical applications of hydrogels: A review of patents and commercial products. Eur Polym J 2015; 65: 252-67.
Ahmed EM. Hydrogel: Preparation, characterization, and applications: A review. J Adv Res 2015; 6(2): 105-21.
Hoffman AS. Hydrogels for biomedical applications. Adv Drug Deliv. Rev 2002; 54(1): 3-12.
Shewan HM, Stokes JR. Review of techniques to manufacture micro-hydrogel particles for the food industry and their applications. J Food Eng 2013; 119(4): 781-92.
Pérez-Díaz M, Alvarado-Gomez E, Magaña-Aquino M, et al. Anti-biofilm activity of chitosan gels formulated with silver nanoparticles and their cytotoxic effect on human fibroblasts. Mater Sci Eng C 2016; 60: 317-23.
Villanueva ME, Diez AM, González JA, et al. Antimicrobial activity of starch hydrogel incorporated with copper nanoparticles. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2016; 8(25): 16280-8.
Zakaria AS, Afifi SA, Elkhodairy KA. Newly developed topical cefotaxime sodium hydrogels: Antibacterial activity and in vivo evaluation. BioMed Res Int 2016; 2016: 15.
Emtiazi G, Shahrokh Esfahani S. Flow Cytometry detection of bacterial cell entrapment within the chitosan hydrogel and antibacterial property of extracted chitosan. J Med Bacterial 2016; 5 (3, 4): pp.9-14.
Prabhu S, Poulose EK. Silver nanoparticles: Mechanism of antimicrobial action, synthesis, medical applications, and toxicity effects. Int Nano Lett 2012; 2(1): 32.
Allahverdiyev AM, Kon KV, Abamor ES, et al. Coping with antibiotic resistance: Combining nanoparticles with antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. Expert Rev Anti Infect 2011; 9(11): 1035-52.
Stanga M. Sanitation; cleaning and disinfection in the food industry: Wiley-VCH; 2010.
Incoronato AL, Conte A, Buonocore GG, et al. Agar hydrogel with silver nanoparticles to prolong the shelf life of fior di latte cheese. J Dairy Sci 2011; 94(4): 1697-704.
Tülin A, Serap D, Banu M. Comparative evaluation of antibacterial activity of caffeic acid phenethyl ester and plga nanoparticle formulation by different methods. Nanotechnology 2016; 27(2): 025103.
Mahdavi M, Jalali M, Kasra Kermanshahi R. The effect of nisin on biofilm forming foodborne bacteria using microtiter plate method. Res Pharm Sci 2007; 2(2): 113-8.
Phongphakdee K, Nitisinprasert S. Combination inhibition activity of nisin and ethanol on the growth inhibition of pathogenic gram negative bacteria and their application as disinfectant solution. J Food Sci 2015; 80(10): M2241-M6.
Zarei M, Jamnejad A, Khajehali E. Antibacterial effect of silver nanoparticles against four foodborne pathogens. Jundishapur J Microbiol 2014; 7(1): e8720.
Chernousova S, Epple M. Silver as antibacterial agent: Ion, nanoparticle, and metal. Angew Chem Int Ed 2013; 52(6): 1636-53.
Gurunathan S, Han J, Kwon DN, et al. Enhanced antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities of silver nanoparticles against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Nanoscale Res Lett 2014; 9(1): 373.
Hajipour MJ, Fromm KM, Ashkarran AA, et al. Antibacterial properties of nanoparticles. Trends Biotechnol 2012; 30(10): 499-511.
Le Ouay B, Stellacci F. Antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles: A surface science insight. Nano Today 2015; 10(3): 339-54.
Shameli K, Ahmad M, Jazayeri S, et al. Investigation of antibacterial properties silver nanoparticles prepared via green method. Chem Cent J 2012; 6(1): 73.
Swaroop K, Francis S, Somashekarappa HM. Gamma irradiation synthesis of ag/pva hydrogels and its antibacterial activity. Mater Today 2016; 3(6): 1792-8.
Alshehri SM, Aldalbahi A, Al-hajji AB, et al. Development of carboxymethyl cellulose-based hydrogel and nanosilver composite as antimicrobial agents for uti pathogens. Carbohydr Polym 2016; 138: 229-36.
Deen G, Chua V. Synthesis and properties of new “stimuli” responsive nanocomposite hydrogels containing silver nanoparticles. Gels 2015; 1(1): 117.
Zhou Y, Kong Y, Kundu S, et al. Antibacterial activities of gold and silver nanoparticles against escherichia coli and bacillus calmette-guérin. J Nanobiotechnology 2012; 10(1):1-9.
|Issue||Vol 6 No 3-4 (2017)|
|Agar Antibacterial Biofilm Hydrogel Nanoparticles Sanitizing|
|Rights and permissions|
|This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.|