A Review of Prognostic Models on Diagnosis and Therapeutic Strategies of Typhoid Fever

  • Aslam Babar Pathology Lab Jinnah Hospital, Allama Iqbal Medical College Lahore, Pakistan.
  • Sabahat Javaid Butt General and Oral Pathology Department, CMH Medical College Lahore, Pakistan.
  • Sajjad Ullah Pathology Lab Jinnah Hospital, Allama Iqbal Medical College Lahore, Pakistan.
Gastrointestinal disorders, Nanoparticles, Salmonella, Typhoid.


Background:      Typhoid infection is an insidious onset type of fever and some other gastrointestinal disorders which may have a fatal outcome. The causative agents are Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi A, and Salmonella paratyphi B.  Clinical features include, gradual rising fever, white coated tongue, and severe degree of malaise, drowsiness and pain in abdomen, perforation with bleeding in the intestines, shock and death. It involves mostly male victims of school going age. It is water born disease which spreads due to poor sanitation mostly in congested populated areas. According to World Health Organization sixteen to seventeen million typhoid fever cases were reported annually, out of which 600,000 died. Typhoid fever is 10 to 29 times more in subcontinent than China. Infection only occurs when food is handled by infected person. Isolated strains of Salmonella spp from suspected cases show resistance against routine antibiotics and the modern antibiotics are much more expensive and un affordable. Conclusion:    Need of this review is especially for Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs) manufactured by some types of fungi introduced by recent researchers have an edge to control or treat some sort of infections due to their antibacterial properties. In this study these (AgNPs) in the form of suspension, give positive results against the Salmonella species. It enables us to treat the typhoid infection in a less expensive way.


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How to Cite
Babar A, Butt SJ, Ullah S. A Review of Prognostic Models on Diagnosis and Therapeutic Strategies of Typhoid Fever. J Med Bacteriol. 7(1-2):1-12.
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