Nanoparticles Impact the Expression of the Genes Involved in Biofilm Formation in S. aureus, a Model Antimicrobial-Resistant Species
AbstractBackground: Infection with resistant bacteria are still reported in hospitals despite the routine cleaning of hospital surfaces. Presence of drug-resistant microbes in the on environment of hospitals and on medical equipment is indicative of the need for control measures which could impact the emergence of such microbes. In addition, biofilms are increasingly associated with human infections and it necessitates careful considerations on usage of a diverse range of medical devices, such as catheters, implants and pacemakers in hospitals. Methods: This study was designed to compare the effect of silver, ZnO nanoparticles and curcumin on drug-resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria which were already isolated from different wards of the hospital. The MIC value were determined for silver, curcumin and ZnO nanoparticles. As the second step, the expression level of the genes involved in biofilm formation in S. aureus, including icaA, icaD, fnbA and fnbB, was studied to analyze the physiological reaction to controlled concentrations of such nanoparticles using RT-qPCR assessments. Results: In this study, a total of 172 bacterial isolates were recovered from clinical and environmental samples (96 and 76 isolates, respectively). API-20 test revealed that these isolates belonged to 8 species. All antimicrobial resistant isolates were susceptible to the metal oxide nanoparticles. The results of q-PCR in this study showed that the expression of icaA and icaD genes in the presence of silver, curcumin and zinc nanoparticles were not significantly reduced compared to the control samples. But, exposure to nanoparticles reduced the expression of fnbA and fnbB genes from 0.46 to 0.06. Conclusion: The results of our study showed that nanoparticles are highly effective on antibiotics- resistant isolates and these compounds can be used in the treatment of resistant bacteria. In addition, this study also demonstrates the promising potential of using nanoparticles as anti-biofilm formation agents.
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