Vol 11 No 1-2 (2023)

Original Articles

  • XML | views: 185 | pages: 1-10
    Background:      Enterococci are main normal microbial flora of both humans and animals and can survive in a diverse range of environments. These bacteria carry out aminoglycoside and vancomycin resistance genes and spread them in environment by many routs such as chicken meat products. The present study was aimed to determine the frequency of aminoglycoside and vancomycin resistant genes in Enterococcus species isolated from chicken meat specimens. Methods:      A total of 250 chicken raw meat specimens was prepared from slaughterhouses at Zanjan province, cultured at BHI broth and incubated at 37°C for 24h. The positive cultures were sub-cultured in blood agar plates and grown colonies identified using phenotypical and biochemical tests. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) standards and PCR assays were performed to detect vanA, vanB, aph (2")1c, aph (2")1b, aph (2")1d, ant(3'), aph(3')IIIa, ant(4')1a, ant(6') and aac(6') genes. Results:      In total, 100 Enterococcus species isolated from 250 specimens and 35% of them belonged to E. faecalis and the others were E. faecium (65%). The prevalence of the vanA, vanB, aph (2")1c, aph (2")1b, aph (2")1d, ant(3'), aph(3')IIIa, ant(4')1a, ant(6') and aac(6') genes among the 100 Enterococcus species was 14%, 12%, 10%, 1%, 2%, 50%, 26%, 9%, 18% and 22%, respectively. Conclusion:      The current study revealed that the rate of antimicrobial resistance genes to aminoglycosides and vancomycin was worrying and health measurements in meat products industries must be performed to prevent spread of antimicrobial resistance elements among bacteria. 
  • XML | views: 143 | pages: 11-18
    Background:      B. cepacia   complex  (Bcc) is an emerging pathogenic organism that can cause many nosocomial infections among hospitalized patients. Inadequate laboratory facilities for B. cepacia   complex detection and subsequently inappropriate treatment are considered a major cause for poor therapy outcomes. Methods:      This project was aimed to investigate phenotype production of ESBL, AmpC, and Carbapenemase among 47 B. cepacia   complex isolated from different Sebha health care facilities. Results:      Our data showed that 44.68% were ESBL producers, 57.44% were AmpC producers, while only 29.78% produced carbapenemase.  In this study, antibiotics susceptibility of Bcc isolates was variable, 100 % resistant to Ticarcillin/clavulanic acid, 85 % resistant to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, 76 % resistant to Ticarcillin/clavulanic Chloramphenicol, 57 % to Ceftazidime, and 55 % to Tetracyclines, 44% to Ciprofloxacin and  31%  to Meropenem. Conclusion:      In conclusion,  this study shows that Bcc species have a higher resistance level attributed to several mechanisms. This high resistance needs careful antimicrobial prescribing regulations, and urgent implementation of infection prevention control is necessary.
  • XML | views: 109 | pages: 19-26
    Background:       The purpose of Saanen and Alpine raising farms is milk production, so control of mastitis is essential. Antibiotic resistance among mastitis pathogens has been increased by long-time usage of antibiotics. The aim of the present study was to isolate bacteria from mastitis cases in Saanen and Alpine goats and to determine their antibiotic resistance. Methods:      Milk sample of 26 Saanen and 29 Alpine was cultured on microbiological media. Polymerase chain reaction was performed for the detection of Mycoplasma. Antibiotic resistance of the bacteria was tested by 12 antibacterial disks. Significant difference in resistance levels between Saanen and Alpine was assessed. Results:      Mycoplasma spp. was detected in 12.73% of samples. The isolated bacteria were Escherichia coli (29.1%), Trueperella pyogenes (25.5%), Staphylococcus aureus (16.4%), Streptococcus agalactiae (9.1%), coagulase negative staphylococci (5.5%), and Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis (1.8%). The significant difference was observed in antibiotic resistance to amoxicillin which was higher in Alpine.   Conclusion:      Accordingly using antibiotics more accurate and using antibiogram by clinician are necessary.

Review Articles

  • XML | views: 92 | pages: 27-35
    Background:      Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a gram negative diplococci which causess a sexually transmitted infection.  N. gonorrhoeae is an obligate human pathogen that causes infection to the mucus-secreting epithelial cells both in male and female. In 2017, the centre of disease control and World Health Organization published the list of global priority pathogens with denting therapeutic options,  including antibiotic-resistant N.  gonorrhoeae. During the covid-19 pandemic,  excessive use of antibiotics led to raise of drug resistance.  The infection is widespread and intractable. If this happens,  more people will be left with an incurable infection which may cause serious health problems. Results:      We characterized  zoliflodacin thoroughly. Here is discussed the clinical trials and side effects on human health by searching different keywords like “zoliflodacin”,  “covid-19”,  “clinical trials” from different data sources like Pub-Med,  Google-Scholar,  and Science-Direct.  Zoliflodacin targets antibiotic-resistant N. gonorrhoeae. Zoliflodacin is mainly known based on its therapeutic effects against N.   gonorrhoeae.  It acts by inhibiting bacterial type 2 topoisomerase with binding site in bacterial gyrase. Zoliflodacin is effective in treating gonococcal urogenital and rectal infection.   Conclusion:      Antibiotic is the only option to treat N.   gonorrhoeae.  There is no vaccine available to treat gonorrhea.  The new drug,  zoliflodacin,  specifically targets antibiotic-resistant gonorrhea and its is why researchers have studied this antibiotic from different point of views. In this study, we elaborate the discovery of zoliflodacin,  its mechanism of action,  the current clinical trials,  and the effectiveness of zoliflodacin.
  • XML | views: 285 | pages: 36-46
    Background:      Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are considered as one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality, worldwide. A wide variety of bacteria and viruses are responsible for the development of RTIs. Considering the importance of respiratory tract infections, this study aimed to provide an overview of the most important respiratory tract infections and inflammations of bacterial origin and their etiologies. Results:      A literature review was conducted to find original studies associated with respiratory infections. Articles that provided evidence on respiratory tract infections as well as their clinical manifestations and etiologies were included in this research. Conclusion:      Considering the importance and economic burden of respiratory tract infections as well as their diversity and widespread prevalence in different communities, it is necessary to implement preventive measures at the national level to control and deal with respiratory diseases with high prevalence in all age groups, in addition to observing the principles of health and hygiene.