Vol 11 No 1-2 (2023)

Original Articles

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    Background:      Enterococci are main normal microbial flora of both humans and animals and can survive in a diverse range of environments. These bacteria carry out aminoglycoside and vancomycin resistance genes and spread them in environment by many routs such as chicken meat products. The present study was aimed to determine the frequency of aminoglycoside and vancomycin resistant genes in Enterococcus species isolated from chicken meat specimens. Methods:      A total of 250 chicken raw meat specimens was prepared from slaughterhouses at Zanjan province, cultured at BHI broth and incubated at 37°C for 24h. The positive cultures were sub-cultured in blood agar plates and grown colonies identified using phenotypical and biochemical tests. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) standards and PCR assays were performed to detect vanA, vanB, aph (2")1c, aph (2")1b, aph (2")1d, ant(3'), aph(3')IIIa, ant(4')1a, ant(6') and aac(6') genes. Results:      In total, 100 Enterococcus species isolated from 250 specimens and 35% of them belonged to E. faecalis and the others were E. faecium (65%). The prevalence of the vanA, vanB, aph (2")1c, aph (2")1b, aph (2")1d, ant(3'), aph(3')IIIa, ant(4')1a, ant(6') and aac(6') genes among the 100 Enterococcus species was 14%, 12%, 10%, 1%, 2%, 50%, 26%, 9%, 18% and 22%, respectively. Conclusion:      The current study revealed that the rate of antimicrobial resistance genes to aminoglycosides and vancomycin was worrying and health measurements in meat products industries must be performed to prevent spread of antimicrobial resistance elements among bacteria. 
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    Background:      B. cepacia   complex  (Bcc) is an emerging pathogenic organism that can cause many nosocomial infections among hospitalized patients. Inadequate laboratory facilities for B. cepacia   complex detection and subsequently inappropriate treatment are considered a major cause for poor therapy outcomes. Methods:      This project was aimed to investigate phenotype production of ESBL, AmpC, and Carbapenemase among 47 B. cepacia   complex isolated from different Sebha health care facilities. Results:      Our data showed that 44.68% were ESBL producers, 57.44% were AmpC producers, while only 29.78% produced carbapenemase.  In this study, antibiotics susceptibility of Bcc isolates was variable, 100 % resistant to Ticarcillin/clavulanic acid, 85 % resistant to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, 76 % resistant to Ticarcillin/clavulanic Chloramphenicol, 57 % to Ceftazidime, and 55 % to Tetracyclines, 44% to Ciprofloxacin and  31%  to Meropenem. Conclusion:      In conclusion,  this study shows that Bcc species have a higher resistance level attributed to several mechanisms. This high resistance needs careful antimicrobial prescribing regulations, and urgent implementation of infection prevention control is necessary.